1.0 Word Analysis, Fluency, and Systematic Vocabulary Development
Students understand the basic features of reading. They select letter patterns and know
how to translate them into spoken language by using phonics, syllabication, and word
parts. They apply this knowledge to achieve fluent oral and silent reading.
1.1 Read narrative and expository text aloud with grade-appropriate fluency and accuracy
and with appropriate pacing, intonation, and expression.
Vocabulary and Concept Development
1.2 Apply knowledge of word origins, derivations, synonyms, antonyms, and idioms to
determine the meaning of words and phrases.
1.3 Use knowledge of root words to determine the meaning of unknown words within a
1.4 Know common roots and affixes derived from Greek and Latin and use this knowledge to analyze the meaning of complex words (e.g., international).
1.5 Use a thesaurus to determine related words and concepts.
1.6 Distinguish and interpret words with multiple meanings.
2.0 Reading Comprehension
Students read and understand grade-level-appropriate material. They draw upon a
variety of comprehension strategies as needed (e.g., generating and responding to
essential questions, making predictions, comparing information from several sources).
The selections in Recommended Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve illustrate the
quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students. In addition to their
regular school reading, students read one-half million words annually, including a good
representation of grade-level-appropriate narrative and expository text (e.g., classic and
contemporary literature, magazines, newspapers, online information).
Structural Features of Informational Materials
2.1 Identify structural patterns found in informational text (e.g., compare and contrast, cause
and effect, sequential or chronological order, proposition and support) to strengthen
Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text
2.2 Use appropriate strategies when reading for different purposes (e.g., full comprehension,
location of information, personal enjoyment).
2.3 Make and confirm predictions about text by using prior knowledge and ideas presented
in the text itself, including illustrations, titles, topic sentences, important words, and
2.4 Evaluate new information and hypotheses by testing them against known information
2.5 Compare and contrast information on the same topic after reading several passages or
2.6 Distinguish between cause and effect and between fact and opinion in expository text.
2.7 Follow multiple-step instructions in a basic technical manual (e.g., how to use computer commands or video games).
3.0 Literary Response and Analysis
Students read and respond to a wide variety of significant works of children’s literature.
They distinguish between the structural features of the text and the literary terms or
elements (e.g., theme, plot, setting, characters). The selections in Recommended Literature,
Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials
to be read by students.
Structural Features of Literature
3.1 Describe the structural differences of various imaginative forms of literature, including
fantasies, fables, myths, legends, and fairy tales.
Narrative Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text
3.2 Identify the main events of the plot, their causes, and the influence of each event on
3.3 Use knowledge of the situation and setting and of a character’s traits and motivations to
determine the causes for that character’s actions.
3.4 Compare and contrast tales from different cultures by tracing the exploits of one character
type and develop theories to account for similar tales in diverse cultures (e.g., trickster
3.5 Define figurative language (e.g., simile, metaphor, hyperbole, personification) and identify its use in literary works.
1.0 Writing Strategies
Students write clear, coherent sentences and paragraphs that develop a central idea.
Their writing shows they consider the audience and purpose. Students progress through
the stages of the writing process (e.g., prewriting, drafting, revising, editing successive
Organization and Focus
1.1 Select a focus, an organizational structure, and a point of view based upon purpose,
audience, length, and format requirements.
1.2 Create multiple-paragraph compositions:
a. Provide an introductory paragraph.
b. Establish and support a central idea with a topic sentence at or near the beginning of
the first paragraph.
c. Include supporting paragraphs with simple facts, details, and explanations.
d. Conclude with a paragraph that summarizes the points.
e. Use correct indention.
1.3 Use traditional structures for conveying information (e.g., chronological order, cause and
effect, similarity and difference, posing and answering a question).
1.4 Write fluidly and legibly in cursive or joined italic.
Research and Technology
1.5 Quote or paraphrase information sources, citing them appropriately.
1.6 Locate information in reference texts by using organizational features (e.g., prefaces,
1.7 Use various reference materials (e.g., dictionary, thesaurus, card catalog, encyclopedia,
online information) as an aid to writing.
1.8 Understand the organization of almanacs, newspapers, and periodicals and how to use
those print materials.
1.9 Demonstrate basic keyboarding skills and familiarity with computer terminology
(e.g., cursor, software, memory, disk drive, hard drive).
Evaluation and Revision
1.10 Edit and revise selected drafts to improve coherence and progression by adding, deleting,
consolidating, and rearranging text.
2.0 Writing Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics)
Students write compositions that describe and explain familiar objects, events, and
experiences. Student writing demonstrates a command of standard American English
and the drafting, research, and organizational strategies outlined in Writing Standard 1.0.
Using the writing strategies of grade four outlined in Writing Standard 1.0, students:
2.1 Write narratives:
a. Relate ideas, observations, or recollections of an event or experience.
b. Provide a context to enable the reader to imagine the world of the event or experience.
c. Use concrete sensory details.
d. Provide insight into why the selected event or experience is memorable.
2.2 Write responses to literature:
a. Demonstrate an understanding of the literary work.
b. Support judgments through references to both the text and prior knowledge.
2.3 Write information reports:
a. Frame a central question about an issue or situation.
b. Include facts and details for focus.
c. Draw from more than one source of information (e.g., speakers, books, newspapers,
other media sources).
2.4 Write summaries that contain the main ideas of the reading selection and the most
WRITTEN AND ORAL ENGLISH LANGUAGE CONVENTIONS
The standards for written and oral English language conventions have been placed
between those for writing and for listening and speaking because these conventions are
essential to both sets of skills.
1.0 Written and Oral English Language Conventions
Students write and speak with a command of standard English conventions appropriate
to this grade level.
1.1 Use simple and compound sentences in writing and speaking.
1.2 Combine short, related sentences with appositives, participial phrases, adjectives, adverbs,
and prepositional phrases.
1.3 Identify and use regular and irregular verbs, adverbs, prepositions, and coordinating
conjunctions in writing and speaking.
1.4 Use parentheses, commas in direct quotations, and apostrophes in the possessive case
of nouns and in contractions.
1.5 Use underlining, quotation marks, or italics to identify titles of documents.
1.6 Capitalize names of magazines, newspapers, works of art, musical compositions,
organizations, and the first word in quotations when appropriate.
1.7 Spell correctly roots, inflections, suffixes and prefixes, and syllable constructions.
LISTENING AND SPEAKING
1.0 Listening and Speaking Strategies
Students listen critically and respond appropriately to oral communication. They speak
in a manner that guides the listener to understand important ideas by using proper
phrasing, pitch, and modulation.
1.1 Ask thoughtful questions and respond to relevant questions with appropriate elaboration
in oral settings.
1.2 Summarize major ideas and supporting evidence presented in spoken messages and
1.3 Identify how language usages (e.g., sayings, expressions) reflect regions and cultures.
1.4 Give precise directions and instructions.
Organization and Delivery of Oral Communication
1.5 Present effective introductions and conclusions that guide and inform the listener’s
understanding of important ideas and evidence.
1.6 Use traditional structures for conveying information (e.g., cause and effect, similarity and
difference, posing and answering a question).
1.7 Emphasize points in ways that help the listener or viewer to follow important ideas and
1.8 Use details, examples, anecdotes, or experiences to explain or clarify information.
1.9 Use volume, pitch, phrasing, pace, modulation, and gestures appropriately to enhance
Analysis and Evaluation of Oral Media Communication
1.10 Evaluate the role of the media in focusing attention on events and in forming opinions on
Listening and Speaking
2.0 Speaking Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics)
Students deliver brief recitations and oral presentations about familiar experiences or
interests that are organized around a coherent thesis statement. Student speaking demonstrates
a command of standard American English and the organizational and delivery
strategies outlined in Listening and Speaking Standard 1.0.
Using the speaking strategies of grade four outlined in Listening and Speaking Standard
2.1 Make narrative presentations:
a. Relate ideas, observations, or recollections about an event or experience.
b. Provide a context that enables the listener to imagine the circumstances of the event or
c. Provide insight into why the selected event or experience is memorable.
2.2 Make informational presentations:
a. Frame a key question.
b. Include facts and details that help listeners to focus.
c. Incorporate more than one source of information (e.g., speakers, books, newspapers,
television or radio reports).
2.3 Deliver oral summaries of articles and books that contain the main ideas of the event or
article and the most significant details.
2.4 Recite brief poems (i.e., two or three stanzas), soliloquies, or dramatic dialogues, using
clear diction, tempo, volume, and phrasing.